Glossary

Logistics Glossary

A.T.A. - Abbreviation for the "American Trucking Association."

Accessorial Charges - Charges that are applied in addition to the base tariff or base contract rate. Typically published in carriers' rules tariffs.

Act of God - An act beyond human control, such as lightning, flood, or earthquake.

Air Bag – A durable bag inflated with air and used to force and secure freight to the inside wall(s) of a trailer.

All Short – None of the freight is received with the movement document.

A.Q. (Any Quantity) - Usually refers to a rating that applies to an article regardless of size or quantity. A pricing term.

ASC X12 - American Standards Committee X12 responsible for developing EDI standards for the United States.

Assignment - A term commonly used in connection with contract provisions or the bill of lading. It involves the transfer of rights, title, and interest in order to assign goods by endorsing the bill of lading.

Astray Freight – The freight is separated from the movement document. See Free Astray.

B/L (Bill of Lading) - An itemized list of goods contained in a shipment. Multi-use documents that are essential to conduct the day to day operations when transportation of supplies, materials, and personal property is required. These primary documents are used to procure freight and express transportation and related services from commercial carriers, including freight forwarders.

Backhaul - Refers to a load of freight which permits a trucker to return to his domicile with a loaded truck, rather than an empty one.

Balloon Freight - Light, bulky articles.

Barrel – A round, metal cylinder (drum) used as a container. Barrels should always be loaded on cardboard dunnage.

Barrel Wheeler or Barrel Truck – A handcart designed to move drums or barrels because their round shape cannot be handled safely by any other means.

Base Rate - A tariff term referring to a rate less accessorial charges, or simply the base tariff rate. Base rates are usually shown "per hundred pounds" and are often discounted by 40-70%.

Beyond - Used with reference to charges assessed for cargo movement past a line-haul terminating point, often involving a connecting or interline carrier.

Bilateral - A contract term meaning that both parties agree to a contractual provision.

Bill of Lading (B/L) - An itemized list of goods contained in a shipment. Multi-use documents that are essential to conduct the day to day operations when transportation of supplies, materials, and personal property is required. These primary documents are used to procure freight and express transportation and related services from commercial carriers, including freight forwarders.

Billing - Preparation of the freight bill, the primary document for a common carrier shipment including a description of the freight, number of pieces, and charges. See "Freight Bill."

Bill-To Party - Customer designated as the party paying for services.

Billed Weight - The weight shown on a waybill or freight bill, i.e., the invoiced weight. Could be different than the "Actual Weight."

Blind Shipment - A B/L wherein the paying customer has contracted with the carrier where either the shipper or consignee information is not provided.

Blocking or Bracing - Wood or metal supports (dunnage) to keep shipments in place to prevent cargo shifting.

Bobtail - Movement of a tractor, without trailer, over the highway.

Break Bulk - To unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a rail car, container, or trailer.

Break Bulk Terminal - A terminal designated to act as an intermediate sorting point for interregional freight. Example: Freight destined for Texas from a Binghampton, NY terminal might go to Stroudsburg, PA to be combined with other freight destined for Texas from other eastern cities.

Broker - Any person who sells transportation without actually providing it. A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load.

Bulkhead - A partition separating one part of a ship, freight car, aircraft, or trailer from another part.

CWT - Hundred weight, or one hundred pounds.

Carrier - Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.

Cart – A four-wheeled vehicle used to move freight on the dock. Carts are used to move one or several shipments across the dock at the same time. Time and labor are saved when large shipments are moved together on a cart.

Cartage - Usually refers to intra-city hauling on drays or trucks.

Chock - A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of tires or cargo to prevent rolling or moving.

Claim - A demand made upon a party for payment on account of a loss, damage, or overcharge sustained through its alleged negligence.

Claim Prevention – The continuous activity of every employee in reducing the number of claims by performing the basic requirements of shipping, receiving, handling, transporting, and delivering shipments on-time without any shortages or damages.

Classification - A publication, such as the National Motor Freight Classification (motor carrier), that assigns ratings to various articles and provides bill of lading descriptions and rules.

COD - Abbreviation for "Collect (cash) On Delivery." Refers to payment for the cost of the goods themselves, not payment for the freight charges.

Collect Freight - A freight payment term where the freight charges are paid by the consignee or third party, not the shipper. The opposite of "Prepaid." Different than a COD.

Commodity - Any article of commerce. Goods shipped.

Commodity Rate - A rate published to apply to a specific article or articles.

Common Carrier - A transportation company which provides service to the general public at published rates.

Concealed Damage - Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package.

Connecting Carrier - A carrier which interchanges trailers with another for completion of shipment delivery.

Consignee - A person or company to whom commodities are shipped.

Consignor - A person or company shown on the bill of lading as the shipper.

Container/Trailer - A vehicle designed without motive power, to be drawn by another vehicle.

Contract Carrier - For-hire carriers which provide transportation under specific contracts or agreements that do not fall within the legal boundaries of common carriage.

Cube – Term used to describe how much loading space (percentage) inside a trailer has been used or is available. For example, a trailer that is loaded exactly halfway full would be called 50% “cubed” out of a possible 100%.

Cubic Foot - 1,728 cubic inches. A volume contained in a space measuring one foot high, one foot wide, and one foot long (12" x 12" x 12").

DOT - Abbreviation for the Department of Transportation.

Deadhead - One leg of a move without a paying cargo load. Usually refers to repositioning an empty piece of equipment.

Defensive Driving – When a driver thinks ahead, anticipates problems, expects the unexpected, and is on the defensive while driving.

Deficit Weight - The weight by which a shipment is less than the minimum weight.

Delivery Receipt – The control document used to deliver freight to the consignee. The delivery receipt (D/R) is signed by the consignee and the driver. Also used as a receipt for collecting monies and for recording delivery exceptions. A signed bill of lading may also be used as a delivery receipt.

Density - The weight of cargo per cubic foot or other unit.
Weight (in pounds) divided by [(Length" x Width" x Height") divided by 1728].

Destination - the place where a carrier actually turns over cargo to consignee or his agent.

Detention - A penalty or accessorial charge against shippers or consignees for delaying carrier's equipment beyond allowed time. Demurrage applies to cargo; detention applies to equipment. See Per Diem.

Diversion - Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit (before delivery). Also referred to as "Reconsignment"

Dock - A platform where trucks are loaded and unloaded.

Dock Plate – Metal plate used as a ramp between a trailer and the dock platform.

Dolly - An auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for purpose of converting a semitrailer to a full trailer. Dollies can be used to haul multiple trailers behind a single power unit. Also referred to as a Bogie.

Double Trailers - A combination of two trailers pulled by a single power unit. Usually refers to a power unit pulling two 28' trailers. See also Rocky Mountain Doubles, Turnpike Doubles, and Twin Trailers.

Driver Collect - Where the delivering carrier's driver collects the freight charges from the consignee "on the spot" because the consignee has not established credit privileges with the carrier.

Dry Cargo - Cargo that is not liquid and normally does not require temperature control.

Dunnage – Term that refers to materials such as cardboard, pallets, plywood, foam rubber, air bags, etc. and used for protecting freight while in-transit.

EDI - Abbreviation for "Electronic Data Interface." Generic term for transmission of transactional data between computer systems. EDI is typically via a batched transmission, usually conforming to consistent standards.

ETA - Abbreviation for "Estimated Time of Arrival."

Empty – A trailer that contains no freight.

Enroute - On the way.

Exception - Notations made when the cargo is received by the customer, at carrier's terminal, or loaded aboard a vessel. Exceptions show any irregularities in packaging or actual or suspected damage to the cargo. Exceptions are then noted on the B/L, freight bill, or delivery receipt.

Exempt Carrier - Motor carriers who are exempt from regulation by the type of commodity hauled (agricultural, newspapers) or the type of service provided (in conjunction with air, local in nature).

Export - Shipment of goods to a foreign country.

FAK - Abbreviation for "freight all kinds."

FCL - Abbreviation for "Full Container Load." Similar to a Truckload.

FOB - Abbreviation for "Free On Board." See also Free On Board and Terms of Sale, FOB.

Fifth Wheel - The semi-circular steel coupling device mounted on a tractor which engages and locks with a chassis semi-trailer.

Force Majeure - The title of a common clause in contracts, exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.

Fork Lift - A machine used to pick up and move goods loaded on pallets or skids.

Four-Way Pallet - A pallet designed so that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from all four sides.

Free Astray - An astray shipment (a lost shipment that is found) sent to its proper destination without additional charge.

Free On Board (FOB - U.S. Domestic Use) - Shipped under a rate that includes costs of delivery to and the loading onto a carrier at a specified point.

Free Time - That amount of time that a carrier's equipment may be used without incurring additional charges.

Freight - Any commodity being transported - or the charges assessed for carriage of the cargo.

Freight Bill - An invoice. Document for a common carrier shipment. Gives description of the freight, its weight, amount of charges, taxes, and the party responsible for payment.

Freight Charge - The transportation charge for transporting freight. Sometimes used synonymously with "Rate."

Freight Broker - See Broker.

GBL - Abbreviation for "Government Bill of Lading."

General Freight Carrier - A carrier which handles a wide variety of commodities in standard trailers. Such carriers can provide truckload or less than truckload service.

Gross Weight - Entire weight of goods, packaging, and container, freight car, or container, ready for shipment. Generally, 80,000 pounds maximum container, cargo, and tractor for highway transport.

Harmonized Code - An internationally accepted and uniform description system for classifying goods for Customs, statistical and other purposes.

Haz Mat - An industry abbreviation for "Hazardous Material." These materials pose a threat to people, equipment, or other cargo. Specific DOT instructions for describing, labeling, and placarding must be followed.

Header – Term used to identify a shipment loaded in front of the trailer, aka headload.

High and Tight – Loading freight high in a trailer utilizes the full cube of the trailer and allows more freight to be loaded. Loading freight tight in a trailer reduces the possibility of damage while enroute.

Household Goods – Also referred to as personal effects.

Hubometer – The meter on the wheel of a tractor used to record mileage.

ICC - Abbreviation for "Interstate Commerce Commission." The federal body formerly charged with enforcing Acts of Congress affecting interstate commerce. Replaced by the STB in 1997.

Import - To receive goods from a foreign country.

In Bond - Cargo moving under Customs control where duty has not yet been paid.

Incentive Rate - A lower than usual tariff rate assessed because a shipper offers a greater volume than specified in the tariff. The incentive rate is assessed for that portion exceeding the normal volume.

Interchange Point - A location where one carrier delivers freight to another carrier.

Interline Freight - Freight which moves from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation companies.

Intermodal - Used to denote movements of cargo containers interchangeably between transport modes, e.g., motor, water, and air carriers, and where the equipment is compatible within the multiple systems.

Interstate Traffic - Traffic having origin and destination in two different states.

Intrastate Traffic - Traffic having origin, destination, and entire transportation within the same state.

Invoice - An itemized list of goods shipped to a buyer, stating quantities, prices, shipping charges, etc.

JIT - Abbreviation for "Just in Time." In this method of inventory control, warehousing is minimal or non-existent; the container is the movable warehouse and must arrive "just in time," not too early nor too late.

Johnson Bar – A large, portable crowbar used on the dock to pry up heavy freight.

Joint Rate - A rate applicable from a point on one transportation line to a point on another line, made by agreement and published in a single tariff by all transportation lines over which the rate applies.

Kilogram - 1,000 grams or 2.2046 pounds.

King Pin - A coupling pin centered on the front underside of a chassis; couples to the tractor.

Knocked Down (KD) - Articles which are taken apart to reduce the cubic footage displaced or to make a better shipping unit and are to be reassembled. The term KD may be used when merchandise in its setup state is reduced by at least 1/3 for shipping.

Knocked Down Flat (KDF) - See Knocked Down. The term KDF may be used when merchandise in its setup state is reduced by at least 2/3 for shipping.

LCL - Abbreviation for "Less than Container Load." The quantity of freight which is less than that required for the application of a container load rate.

LCV - Abbreviation for "Longer combination vehicle." A tractor pulling at least two trailers.

LTL (Less than Truckload) - A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a truckload rate. The historical definition of LTL freight is "shipments under 10,000 pounds."

LTL Motor Carrier - Carrier which specializes in transporting shipments under 10,000 pounds.

Label - Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification for handling, transportation, and delivery. Affixed to one or more sides of each package, and usually containing the company names and addresses of the shipper and consignee.

Landing Gear - A retractable support fixed on the front part of a chassis; used to support the front end of a chassis when the tractor has been removed.

Line Haul - Movement of freight between cities, excluding pickup and delivery service.

Load Bars – A tool used to secure freight in a trailer, typically to keep cartons from falling.

Load Factor – The computed value of weight loaded into trailers factored by the miles the trailer travels. If trailers are loaded to fully capacity, the cost is lower as fewer trailers are needed and fewer miles are traveled per pound of freight.

Loading Allowance – A tariff allowance to a customer for loading its shipments onto a carrier’s trailer, thereby reducing the carrier’s labor cost. Usually a fixed sum per hundredweight, conditioned on a specific volume that must be tendered in a single day. Usually, the customer files for (claims) the allowance once each month. See also Unloading Allowance.

Logistics - That part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customers' requirements.

Loose Freight - Without packing. Sometimes used to refer to freight that has not been palletized or otherwise unitized, i.e., "loose cartons."

Low-Boy - A trailer or semi-trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground.

Manifest - Document that lists in detail all the bills of lading issued by a carrier or its agent. A detailed summary of the total cargo of a vessel. Used primarily for Customs purposes.

Marking - Letters, numbers, and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification.

Meter - 39.37 inches.

Minimum Charge - The lowest charge that can be assessed to transport a shipment, sometimes referred to as the "Absolute Minimum."

Mule - A tractor used for moving (switching) trailers around a warehouse/terminal dock or yard.

Multimodal - Synonymous for all practical purposes with "Intermodal."

NAFTA - Abbreviation for the "North American Free Trade Agreement." A free trade agreement, implemented 1/1/94, between Canada, Mexico, and the U.S.

NMFC - Abbreviation for the "National Motor Freight Classification." A publication that assigns ratings to various articles and provides bill of lading descriptions and rules.

Nested - Articles packed so that one rests partially or entirely within another, thereby reducing the cubic foot displacement, i.e., paper cups.

NOI - Abbreviation for "Not Otherwise Indexed." Commonly used as part of a "catch-all" commodity description in the NMFC.

NOIBN - Abbreviation for "Not Otherwise Indexed By Name." Commonly used as part of a "catch-all" commodity description in the NMFC.

NVOCC (Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier) - A cargo consolidator in ocean trades who will buy space from a carrier and sub-sell it to smaller shippers. The NVOCC issues bills of lading, publishes tariffs, and otherwise conducts itself as an ocean common carrier, except that it will not provide the actual ocean or intermodal service.

Nose - Front of a container or trailer; opposite of the tail.

Nose Load – See Header.

Open Top Container - A container fitted with a solid, removable roof, or with a parpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top; also known as "Rag Top."

Operating Ratio - A measure of profitability based upon operating expenses as a percentage of gross revenues.

Order Notify - A bill of lading term to provide surrender of the original bill of lading before freight is released; usually associated with a shipment covered under a letter of credit.

Origin - Location where shipment began its movement. Also known as "Point of Origin."

OS&D - Abbreviation for "Over, Short, or Damaged." Usually discovered at cargo unloading.

Overage - Excess freight over the quantity believed to have been shipped.

Overcharge - To charge more than the proper amount according to the published or contracted rates.

P&D – An acronym for “pickup and delivery.” LTL freight systems typically have operations for pickup and delivery within cities and freight flow operations for transport of freight between cities.

PARS - Abbreviation for "Pre-Arrival Review System." A Canada Customs system that allows shipment release information to be transmitted and processed by Canada Customs before the goods arrive in Canada. PARS speeds up the Customs clearance process.

POD - Abbreviation for "Proof of Delivery."

Packing List - Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers, but no cost values indicated.

Pallet - A platform with or without sides on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck; often referred to as a "Skid."

Pallet Jack – A hand-operated, non-motorized forklift tool.

Payee - A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds.

Payer - A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument.

Perishable Freight – Shipments which are subject to decay or deterioration.

Per Diem - A charge based upon a fixed, daily rate.

Pickup - The act of picking up freight at the consignor's shipping platform. The act of calling for freight to be picked up by truck at the consignor's shipping platform.

Piggyback - A transportation arrangement in which truck trailers with their loads are moved via train to a destination. Also known as Rail Pigs.

Point of Origin - The place at which a shipment is received by a carrier from the shipper. Also known simply as "Origin."

Power Unit - The control and pulling vehicle for containers, trailers, or semi-trailers. See also Tractor, Truck.

Prepaid - A freight payment term where the freight charges are to be paid by the shipper or a third party, not by the consignee.

Pro Number - Short for "Progressive Number." Also known as "Freight Bill Number." A carrier invoice number assigned for each shipment.

Proof of Delivery (POD) - A paper or electronic document, verifying that a shipment was delivered. The POD includes the shipment details, a consignee representative's signature, the date received, and any delivery exception notations, e.g., pieces short, damaged.

Pup - A short semi-trailer used jointly with a dolly and another semi-trailer to create twin (or doubles) trailers.

RVNX - Abbreviation for "Released Value Not Exceeding." Usually used to limit the value of goods transported. The limitation refers to carrier liability when paying a claim for lost or damaged goods. Allows shippers to receive a lower freight rate in exchange for limiting the carrier's liability.

Rag Top - A container fitted with a solid, removable roof, or with a parpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top; also known as an "Open Top Container."

Rate - The charge per hundred pounds, per piece, or per shipment for transporting freight. Sometimes used synonymously with "Freight Charge."

Rate Basis - A formula of the specific factors or elements that control the making of a rate. A rate may be based upon a number of factors, e.g., weight, measure, density, equipment type, package, box, etc.

Rebate - An illegal form of discounting or refunding that has the net effect of lowering the tariff price.

Reconsignment - Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit (before delivery). Also referred to as "Diversion."

Recooper – To repair damaged cartons or containers.

Reefer - Slang term for "Refrigerated Trailer." A temperature-controlled trailer.

Released Value - Usually used to limit the value of goods transported. The limitation refers to carrier liability when paying a claim for lost or damaged goods. Allows shippers to receive a lower freight rate in exchange for limiting the carrier's liability.

Remittance - Funds sent by one person to another as payment. "Remittance Advice" includes all invoice numbers being paid by each payment.

Rocky Mountain Double - A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor, a 45 to 48 foot semi-trailer and a shorter 28 foot semi-trailer.

Route - The manner in which a shipment moves, i.e., the carrier(s) handling it and the points through which it moves, and/or the points at which the carriers interchange.

Rug Pole – A forklift attachment for handling carpeting.

SCAC - Abbreviation for "Standard Carrier Abbreviation Code." Identifies an individual common carrier.

SIC Code - Abbreviation for "Standard Industrial Classification Code." A standard numerical code used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services. For example, SIC 42 includes Motor Freight Transportation and Warehousing.

SL&C - Abbreviation for "Shipper's Load & Count." Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carrier.

STB - Abbreviation for the "Surface Transportation Board." The U.S. Federal body charged with enforcing acts of the U.S. Congress that affect common carriers in interstate commerce. The STB replaced the ICC in 1997.

STC - Abbreviation for "Said to Contain." Used as a notation on the bill of lading by a driver who is unable to count the number of pieces on a palletized or unitized shipment

Seal - Metal strip or lead fastener used for locking freight car or trailer doors. Seals are numbered for record-keeping purposes.

Semi-Trailer - Truck trailer equipped with one or more axles and constructed so that the front end rests upon the back of a truck tractor.

Shipment - A package or group of packages typically sent from one shipper to one consignee on one bill of lading.

Shipper - The person or company who is usually the supplier or owner of commodities shipped. Also called Consignor.

Shipper's Load & Count (SL&C) - Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carrier.

Shipping Order - Shipper's instructions to carrier for forwarding goods; usually the triplicate copy of the bill of lading.

Shortage – The number of pieces in a shipment are fewer than the piece-count shown on the movement document.

Shrink Wrap - Polyethylene or similar substance heat-treated and shrunk into an envelope around several packages, thereby securing them as a single pack for presentation or to secure units on a pallet. Similar to "Stretch Wrap."

Single Shipment – A shipment rated as less than 500 pounds and is picked up at one location with no other shipments.

Skid - Battens, or a series of parallet runners, fitted beneath boxes or packages to raise them clear of the floor to permit easy access of forklift blades or other handling equipment; often referred to as a "Pallet."

Slipsheet - A sheet of cardboard or plastic designed to be used much like a pallet or skid, but less expensive, thinner and lighter. A slipsheet allows for better cube utilization of a trailer and greater payload, but requires specialized equipment for loading and unloading.

Spotting - Placing a container where required to be loaded or unloaded.

Stacking - Loading cargo into a container.

Straight Truck - A vehicle with the cargo body and tractor mounted on the same chassis. A straight truck is a single tractor/trailer unit that has no "hinge" between the tractor and trailer.

Stretch Wrap - Polyethylene or similar substance wrapped around several packages, thereby securing them as a single pack for presentation or to secure units on a pallet. Similar to "Shrink Wrap."

Stripping - Removing cargo from a container. Devanning.

Supply Chain - A logistical management system which integrates the sequence of activities from delivery of raw materials to the manufacturer through to delivery of the finished product to the customer into measurable components. "Just in Time" is an example of supply chain management.

Surcharge - An extra or additional charge, i.e., fuel surcharge (when the cost of fuel spikes unexpectedly).

Surface Transportation Board (STB) - The U.S. Federal body charged with enforcing acts of the U.S. Congress that affect common carriers in interstate commerce. The STB replaced the ICC in 1997.

TL - Abbreviation for "Truckload." Quantity of freight required to fill a truck. When used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate. Historical definition is a shipment of 10,000 or more.

Tail - Back of a container or trailer; opposite of the nose.

Tariff - A publication setting forth the rules, rates, and charges of companies.

Tender - The offer of goods for transportation or the offer to place cars or containers for loading or unloading.

Terminal - A building or assigned area for the handling and temporary storage of freight pending transfer between locations.

Terms of Sale - The point at which sellers have fulfilled their obligations so the goods in a legal sense could be said to have been delivered to the buyer. Thirteen shorthand expressions that set out the rights and obligations of each party when it comes to transporting the goods.

Top Freight – Fragile freight that must be loaded near the ceiling of the trailer so that it will not be crushed.

Trace - A request that a carrier locate a shipment to speed its movement or to establish proof of delivery, or a request for an answer to a previously filed claim.

Tractor - The control and pulling vehicle for containers, trailers, or semi-trailers. See also Power Unit, Tractor, Truck.

Trailer/Container - A vehicle designed without motive power, to be drawn by another vehicle.

Transport - To move cargo from one place to another.

Triples – A set of three 28-foot trailers, connected with two converter dollies, used to transport LTL freight.

Truck - A motor vehicle designed to carry an entire load. It may consist of a chassis and body; a chassis, cab and body; or it may be of integral construction so that the body and chassis form a single unit.

Truckload (TL) - Quantity of freight required to fill a truck. When used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate. Historical definition is a shipment of 10,000 or more.

Turnpike Double - A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor and two trailers of 45 to 48 feet.

Twin Trailer - A short semi-trailer (under 29' in length) designed to be operated as part of a combination vehicle with a tandem trailer of similar length. See Double Trailers.

Two-Way Pallet - A pallet so designed that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from two sides only.

Unclaimed Freight - Freight that has not been called for or picked up by the consignee or owner.

Undercharge - To charge less than the proper amount.

Unitization - Loading one or more large items of cargo onto a single piece of equipment, such as a pallet.

Unloading - Removal of a shipment from a container.

Unloading Allowance – A tariff allowance to a customer for unloading its shipments from a carrier’s trailer, thereby reducing the carrier’s labor cost. Usually a fixed sum per hundredweight, conditioned on a specific volume that must be tendered in a single day. Usually, the customer files for (claims) the allowance once each month. See also Loading Allowance.

Volume Rate – A rate (usually less expensive than the LTL scale of rates) for large volume shipments.

Warehouse - A place for the reception, delivery, consolidation, distribution, and storage or goods/cargo.

Warehouseman’s Liability – A warehouseman is liable for loss or damage to goods caused by failure to exercise “reasonable care” while the product is in his possession. Under certain circumstances, the carrier’s cargo claim liability reverts to that of a warehouseman (usually when the carrier cannot deliver a shipment and must store the product at carrier’s location or at a public warehouse). The interpretation of “reasonable care” and the corresponding financial responsibilities in these situations are sometimes vague and are often determined by common law cases. In general, warehouseman’s liability has proven to be less than full common carrier liability.

Waybill - A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of a shipment; shows the point of origin, destination, route, consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service. It may move with the shipment or be forwarded to the agent at the transfer point or waybill destination.

Yard - A classification, storage, or switching area.

Yard Mule or Yard Goat – A tractor used for moving (switching) trailers around a warehouse/terminal dock or yard, aka a hostling tractor.